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Tag: Cummins

WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CUMMINS DIESEL ISX AND N14?

Cummins has a history of producing strong, long-lasting diesel engines, including some of the most popular ones for on-highway applications. Two of their engines in particular, the N14 and the ISX, continue to remain popular diesel choices.

So what make the two different from each other? Why did Cummins make the switch from the N14 to the ISX applications? In this article, we dive into the history and the differences between the engines.

CUMMINS N14 AND ISX DEVELOPMENT HISTORY

THE CUMMINS N14

Prior to the release of the N14, the NTC was the workhorse of the Cummins line. For a while, it was really one of the best over-the-road engine applications. It had two versions: a small cam with a diameter of under 2 inches, and a larger cam to help support the increasing injector pressures.

They also began putting electronics in the engine, resulting in two different NTC applications with electronic systems—the PT Pacer, which had a cruise control system, and the Pace unit, which included a cruise control system with a PTO setting (this means you could select the engine RPM and it would sustain it no matter the load, up to a certain point).

Cummins eventually got their electronics and parts people together in the same room with the goal of creating a 1,000,000 mile engine. The N14 was the result. It has the same cubic displacement as the NTC, but included more electronics, like the injectors.

After a while, though, the EPA began to release new emissions restrictions and standards that the N14 couldn’t meet. Cummins needed to move to an Integrated Management System, which was full electronics. This became the base for the ISX, which would replace the N14 as the Cummins workhorse.

THE CUMMINS ISX

In order to meet these increasing restrictions, they really needed to increase pressure to better atomize fuel, which would then result in better emissions. So they worked to improve the electronic fuel controls that would appear in the ISX, allowing the engine to meet the EPA guidelines.

A few years later, though, the EPA came out with even stricter emissions guidelines, and in order for the ISX to continue to meet standards, Cummins really had to control fuel injection, making it more precise. This led to the production of the common rail injectors.

The ECM controls the timing of these injectors, leading to more precision, and the rail keeps the pressure constant. This increases efficiency and kept the ISX in line with EPA regulations.

Despite this development, though, the exhaust was still “dirty” and produced a fair amount of soot. They then came out with after treatment (DPF), which acted like a sponge that collects soot. If it cracked, it was easy to tell, as black would begin to leak out.

In 2013, in order to clean exhaust even further, though, diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) was developed. After the exhaust goes through the DPF, the DEF molecularizes it, cleaning it even further. The DPF would heat the catalytic converter. The chemically produced heat of up to 1,200 degrees would burn the carbon to reduce the volume of soot. This helped result in clean stacks—if there’s black soot on your stacks, your system is broken.

3 MAIN CUMMINS ISX AND N14 DIFFERENCES

1. ELECTRONICS

While the N14 does include some electronic components, the ISX has more. It’s name is even based on this (IS stands for Interact System). This move toward more electronic controls is what allowed the ISX to continue to meet the EPA regulations

2. SIZE

The two engines are physically different in size. Two versions of the ISX were involved in the phase out of the N14 and the M11 (the little brother of the N14, which was likewise unable to meet emissions standards), the ISX12 and the ISX15.

3. COMPONENTS

Because of the shift to electronic controls, the N14 has more valve train components than the ISX. To learn more about valve train components, read our blog post on the topic. This reduction in the amount of components likewise reduced a lot of possible wear. The ISX is more of a direct injection type of device than the N14.

Despite their shared history in the Cummins lineup, the N14 and ISX are very different engines. Both have their pros and cons, though, leading to operators having strong feelings about one or the other.

WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CUMMINS DIESEL ISX AND N14?

Cummins has a history of producing strong, long-lasting diesel engines, including some of the most popular ones for on-highway applications. Two of their engines in particular, the N14 and the ISX, continue to remain popular diesel choices.

So what make the two different from each other? Why did Cummins make the switch from the N14 to the ISX applications? In this article, we dive into the history and the differences between the engines.

CUMMINS N14 AND ISX DEVELOPMENT HISTORY

THE CUMMINS N14

Prior to the release of the N14, the NTC was the workhorse of the Cummins line. For a while, it was really one of the best over-the-road engine applications. It had two versions: a small cam with a diameter of under 2 inches, and a larger cam to help support the increasing injector pressures.

They also began putting electronics in the engine, resulting in two different NTC applications with electronic systems—the PT Pacer, which had a cruise control system, and the Pace unit, which included a cruise control system with a PTO setting (this means you could select the engine RPM and it would sustain it no matter the load, up to a certain point).

Cummins eventually got their electronics and parts people together in the same room with the goal of creating a 1,000,000 mile engine. The N14 was the result. It has the same cubic displacement as the NTC, but included more electronics, like the injectors.

After a while, though, the EPA began to release new emissions restrictions and standards that the N14 couldn’t meet. Cummins needed to move to an Integrated Management System, which was full electronics. This became the base for the ISX, which would replace the N14 as the Cummins workhorse.

THE CUMMINS ISX

In order to meet these increasing restrictions, they really needed to increase pressure to better atomize fuel, which would then result in better emissions. So they worked to improve the electronic fuel controls that would appear in the ISX, allowing the engine to meet the EPA guidelines.

A few years later, though, the EPA came out with even stricter emissions guidelines, and in order for the ISX to continue to meet standards, Cummins really had to control fuel injection, making it more precise. This led to the production of the common rail injectors.

The ECM controls the timing of these injectors, leading to more precision, and the rail keeps the pressure constant. This increases efficiency and kept the ISX in line with EPA regulations.

Despite this development, though, the exhaust was still “dirty” and produced a fair amount of soot. They then came out with after treatment (DPF), which acted like a sponge that collects soot. If it cracked, it was easy to tell, as black would begin to leak out.

In 2013, in order to clean exhaust even further, though, diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) was developed. After the exhaust goes through the DPF, the DEF molecularizes it, cleaning it even further. The DPF would heat the catalytic converter. The chemically produced heat of up to 1,200 degrees would burn the carbon to reduce the volume of soot. This helped result in clean stacks—if there’s black soot on your stacks, your system is broken.

3 MAIN CUMMINS ISX AND N14 DIFFERENCES

1. ELECTRONICS

While the N14 does include some electronic components, the ISX has more. It’s name is even based on this (IS stands for Interact System). This move toward more electronic controls is what allowed the ISX to continue to meet the EPA regulations

2. SIZE

The two engines are physically different in size. Two versions of the ISX were involved in the phase out of the N14 and the M11 (the little brother of the N14, which was likewise unable to meet emissions standards), the ISX12 and the ISX15.

3. COMPONENTS

Because of the shift to electronic controls, the N14 has more valve train components than the ISX. To learn more about valve train components, read our blog post on the topic. This reduction in the amount of components likewise reduced a lot of possible wear. The ISX is more of a direct injection type of device than the N14.

Despite their shared history in the Cummins lineup, the N14 and ISX are very different engines. Both have their pros and cons, though, leading to operators having strong feelings about one or the other.

Dongfeng Cummins ISD6.7 Parts

ISD series engines have exceptional reliability leading in the industry. Along with increasingly strict emission laws and regulations, ISD series have become first power choice of domestic mainstream bus manufacturers with their reliable and dependable product platform and sustainable technological development advantages.

ISD 6.7L engines with full-authority electronic control, ranging 140-285 horsepower, are widely used in 6-11 meter-long highway bus, tour bus, school bus applications. High operation efficiency, long work cycle, and durable. Advanced electronic control system can realize intelligent management, data communication, real-time monitoring and pre-warning of faults between engine and subsystems, as well as engine and vehicle.

Since their entrance into the market in 2005, ISD series engines have become favored by OEM and users by virtue of their higher output per liter, lower fuel consumption, longer overhaul interval and lower usage cost.

Intelligent electronic controls: Advanced electronic control integrated system share information among high speed datalinks, to ensure that the engine maintains the best operating status, effective fuel savings and low emissions under various loads.

Effective fuel saving: With higher injection pressure up to 1800 bar, High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System features more precise control of injection timing and amount of fuel, more complete combustion, broader economical fuel consumption range, tremendously enhanced fuel economy, thus further improving low-speed performance, and resulting in better noise reduction and cold start performance.

Excellent power output: Fast startup, good acceleration and grade ability, superior torque output at low speed.

Economical usage: Highly integrated engine subsystems can realize fuel savings in many ways. Higher output per liter causes stable and reliable operation under complex operating conditions, resulting in excellent power, ultra-long service life, and long maintenance intervals.

Leading emission level Worldwide suitability Products meeting NS IV, NS V, EEV emission requirements are developed based on an identical platform, which is lasting and reliable, of strong heritage and easy to be upgraded. AS of the end of 2010, Cummins Emission Solutions factories have supplied over 300,000 sets of selective catalytic reduction system (SCR) to worldwide engine enterprises, for Euro IV, Euro V, EEV and US EPA2010 emission solutions, with proven and approved reliability.

Dongfeng Cummins ISD4.5 parts

ISD series engines have exceptional reliability leading in the industry. Along with increasingly strict emission laws and regulations, ISD series have become first power choice of domestic mainstream bus manufacturers with their reliable and dependable product platform and sustainable technological development advantages.

ISD 4.5L engine with full-authority electronic control, ranging 140-285 horsepower, are widely used in 6-11 meter-long highway bus, tour bus, school bus applications. High operation efficiency, long work cycle, and durable. Advanced electronic control system can realize intelligent management, data communication, real-time monitoring and pre-warning of faults between engine and subsystems, as well as engine and vehicle.

Since their entrance into the market in 2005, ISD series engines have become favored by OEM and users by virtue of their higher output per liter, lower fuel consumption, longer overhaul interval and lower usage cost.

Intelligent electronic controls: Advanced electronic control integrated system share information among high speed datalinks, to ensure that the engine maintains the best operating status, effective fuel savings and low emissions under various loads.

Effective fuel saving: With higher injection pressure up to 1800 bar, High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System features more precise control of injection timing and amount of fuel, more complete combustion, broader economical fuel consumption range, tremendously enhanced fuel economy, thus further improving low-speed performance, and resulting in better noise reduction and cold start performance.

Excellent power output: Fast startup, good acceleration and grade ability, superior torque output at low speed.

Economical usage: Highly integrated engine subsystems can realize fuel savings in many ways. Higher output per liter causes stable and reliable operation under complex operating conditions, resulting in excellent power, ultra-long service life, and long maintenance intervals.

Leading emission level Worldwide suitability: Products meeting NS IV, NS V, EEV emission requirements are developed based on an identical platform, which is lasting and reliable, of strong heritage and easy to be upgraded. As of the end of 2010, Cummins Emission Solutions factories have supplied over 300,000 sets of selective catalytic reduction system (SCR) to worldwide engine enterprises, for Euro IV, Euro V, EEV and US EPA2010 emission solutions, with proven and approved reliability.

Test Drive: Cummins X12 Diesel Engine Version 2.0

Cummins’ new X12 engine is slated to hit the street sometime early last year, probably shortly after its formal launch in February or March. The engine was introduced in August 2016, and I had a short drive with it then around the 7-mile loop track at the Transportation Research Center in East Liberty, Ohio. It wasn’t much of an opportunity to get to know the engine, but it whet my appetite. Cummins invited me to drive the new X12 this past November on a longer real-world route, starting from the plant in Jamestown, New York, where the X12 is to be built.

The X12 has a displacement of 11.4 liters, which, according to conventional mathematical rounding principles, should have caused the engine to be named X11. However, the engine punches above its weight, and to call it X11 would have diminished some of its brightest attributes. Tipping the scales at just 2,050 pounds, it has the highest power-to-weight ratio of any heavy-duty engine from 10 liters to 16 liters in size. It’s lighter than any 11-liter block on the market (albeit subject to interpretation on how “dry weight” is determined). And its published ratings put it squarely in 13-liter to 15-liter territory for torque and horsepower.

Under the hood

Development on the X12 began in 2013 in close collaboration China’s Beiqi Foton Motor Co. There it was known as the ISG. The version of the engine we’ll see here in the next month or so has been almost completely re-engineered. Cummins tells me that close to 90% of the engine saw some re-engineering to ready it for North America.

On the road

For this test drive in a van trailer grossing 61,100 pounds, I ran about 90 miles on a nice mix of Interstate and flat and hilly two-lane roads. I headed west on I-86 from the plant in Lakewood to Northeast Pennsylvania, where I flipped back eastward on I-90. I got onto New York State Route 5 at Ripley, headed east to Westfield, and then back south to the plant on S.R. 394 and 430. It’s a great route to test an engine like this, because it’s exactly the kind of terrain on which it will operate in real life.

The engine was installed in a Freightliner Cascadia daycab with a manual transmission. I opted for the manual because it gave me a better feel for what the engine could do, unaffected by an automated transmission with ideas of its own. It was a 10-speed Eaton manual with a 0.78:1 OD ratio, 3.58:1 rears and 11R22.5 tires — a typical spec for a regional/P&D operation where the X12 might find itself.

We’ll learn more about it when it’s formally introduced, but based on what we know about the ISG, the X12 has about half the number of parts found on other diesel engines. It uses a sculpted block design for greater rigidity and less resonant noise. The block was engineered to remove as much metal as possible to reduce weight without sacrificing structural integrity. Several composite components, such as the rocker cover and oil pan, also help reduce overall weight. It features optimized intake and exhaust ports for easier breathing, and coolant and oil galleries were engineered for easier flow with less pumping effort. It uses the XPI high-pressure injection system and a Cummins-designed integrated engine brake that delivers up to 50% more engine braking horsepower than traditional engine brakes, the company says.

I have also been told that the X12 will be available with Cummins’ full suite of electronic fuel efficiency and operational enhancements, such as Adept (SmartTorque2, Smart Coast, predictive cruise), Load Based Speed Control, and Connected Diagnostics. It will also use Cummins’ Single Module after treatment system.

This engine was rated at 455 hp/1,700 lb-ft. The power curves indicate peak torque extends from 1,000 rpm all the way up to 1,400, while the peak horsepower of 455 is available from 1,400 to 1,900 rpm, which is a dream configuration. You have a 400-rpm range for peak torque, which gave me a 15 mph range on the Interstate in top gear where I was cruising at peak torque, from 50 to 65 mph. At 65, I was running 1,400 rpm. I was down to 1,000 at 50 mph, which is a bit low for a hilly road, but okay on flat ground. At 55 mph, the engine was rolling along happily at 1,200 rpm, which gave me a 200-rpm margin before I’d have to think about downshifting.

I can’t say how an automated transmission would have handled it, but my inclination is to run the engine down as low as possible before downshifting without trapping myself at too low an engine speed. I suspect an Eaton automated would have opted for higher shift points, and so might have spent more time in 9th gear on the two-lane sections than I did.

I did cruise along in 9th for a while on a hilly section of S.R. 394 and was quite pleased with the very spry performance of the engine between 1,500 and 1,700 rpm. Ninth gear gave me a speed range from 45-65 mph at a usable engine speed, so I could have happily left it in that gear the whole time I was in the hills.

The engine responds very nicely to low-rpm operation in the bottom five gears, when I usually shift between 800 and 1,000 rpm. Startability is great with that gear combination. In the higher gears, shifts were comfortably made at 1,200-1,400 rpm.

The engine brake was fantastic for such a small-displacement engine, and when the revs get up to 2,100 or so, you can really feel it digging in. With today’s low-rpm operation, it’s easy to forget about the top 500 rpm in the engine range, but that’s where the engine brake works best.

On a less technical level, I found the engine to be very quiet, and it has a very pleasant low growling sound. It won’t bother anybody. Because the engine is so light, I’m sure it will be a hit in weight-sensitive applications. The variety of ratings is astounding; they go up in roughly 25-rpm increments from 325 to 500. The 500-rpm rating is vocational only; on-highway goes as high as 475. Torque ratings run from 1,350 to 1,700, and there are several multi-torque ratings in there as well, 1,550/1,700 and 1,450/1,650.

I think the X12 is exactly the right engine for the emerging regional haul market, and Cummins has nailed the performance curves. There’s nothing missing on this engine except a few hundred surplus pounds of engine block.

Get to know the Cummins 6BT engine

The engine of the Cummins B-Series is a straight six-cylinder diesel engine from Cummins Engine, built since 1984. Since then, the engine has been constantly evolving; the capacity has been increased from 5.9 to 6.7 litters. Designed as an industrial engine for use in commercial vehicles, the B-Series gained notoriety through its use in Ram pickup trucks from 1989 onwards. The B Series was manufactured by Consolidated Diesel Company of North Carolina. With an average mileage of 482,803 km up to the first engine overhaul, the B-Series in Ram Trucks is considered durable. In the following section, the first engine of the B-series, type 6BT, will be discussed.

A brief overview of the 6BT engine:

The original Type 6BT engine, built until 1991, is a 5.9-liter, water-cooled, in-line six-cylinder diesel engine with a cast iron engine block. The cylinder bore is 102.11 mm (4.02 inches); the stroke is 119.89 mm (4.72 inches). From the pistons, the power is transmitted via a connecting rod with an I-shaped shaft to a forged steel crankshaft. The crankshaft drives via spur gears to a lower-lying camshaft, which actuates two hanging valves per cylinder via pushrods.

The 6BT series diesel engine, unlike other competitors in the market, also features turbocharging and direct injection. 6BT produced 160 HG power and torque in the trucks sold between 1989 and 1993. The horsepower and the torque are given in pounds per foot and measured to standard; Alternator, water pump, power steering hydraulic pump and exhaust system have been dismantled for the measurement. Since that time the Cummins 6BT engine has been discontinued. But to this day enthusiasts of these engines have still been able to purchase Cummins 6BT parts as a way to replace or repair any failing car parts that they may already have.

What makes the 6BT so special?

In addition to being the first ever B-series engines that Cummins has made, the 6BT is also a popular series of engines for a number of different reasons. The 6BT is the highest production of 6-liter diesel engines that has ever been made. In fact, it is still being produced in around six countries around the world. Another quality of these engine series is that they provide the best mid-range platform for a diesel engine. And even for a mid-range engine it still is able to be used for a wide variety of different uses and platforms as well.

If you have heard of the famous Dodge Ram vehicle, it is that popular because of the 6BT engine series that it has got under the hood. And to this day the same sort of 6BT engine series is still being used for the Dodge Ram vehicles as well. Many Dodge pickup trucks also use the same 6BT parts even in the present. It has got a simple mechanical design (with 12 valves) that is simply unbeatable in terms of pricing and performance. The competitor’s and other manufacturers of engine parts have simply been unable to beat the 6BT manufactured by Cummins.

Brief Introduction of Dongfeng Cummins Engine Assembly

Cummins Engine Assembly: A Complete Guide

You cannot deny the fact that Cummins engine assembly seems like a daunting task, especially if this is your first time doing it. There are a lot of factors that you need to consider, and assembling a Cummins engine requires a lot of patience in the process. So, to help you get started here is a complete guide to assembling.

1. Measuring

First, we start with measuring. Get the exact measurements of the crankshaft main bearing journal diameter using a micrometer. Unlike other measuring tools, it can help you to get more accurate measurements. Just make sure that you’re going to inspect each journal in several locations for better results.

When you’re going to purchase a micrometer, it’s either you could ask for an in-person demo of how to use it from the store where you’ve bought it, or you could watch tutorial videos. It’s empirical that you know how to use it properly otherwise you will not get proper measurements.

While measuring, you should record the measurements of the figures while going around the main bearing journal. For instance, in a typical modern V8, there are approximately five bearing journals that you are required to measure.

2. Installing

After measuring, you can proceed to install the main bearings. When it comes to the main bearing cap, you can start by installing in the block and pushing it to the edge of the main bearing bore. This process is repetitive but important until all bolts of the main bearing cap are in place. This will help to ensure that while the engine is in use, the bearing does not rotate by itself. Don’t worry because most Cummins engine numbered their bearing caps to make it easier for the installer. Torquing the cap bolts is highly recommended to ensure that it’s tightly sealed. Just make sure that you’re going to follow the specification of the manufacturer.

3. Checking

Next, you can proceed to the checking of clearances. You can now use a dial bore gauge if you don’t have an inside micrometer. Just like the crankshaft, it is important that you’re going to measure the bearings as well. Again, look back into the specifications of your manufacturer for proper guidance for a more appropriate clearance figures.

4. Crankshaft installation

The rear main seal could either be a one-piece or two-piece type, it depends on the Cummins engine that you have. Regardless of the format of your rear seal, it must be installed after checking for the clearances. Make sure that the seal on the lips faces is facing towards the engine itself. Using a clean towel, clean the seal groove thoroughly so that the sealant could function properly.

After the crankshaft installation, eventually, you’ll need to check the thrust clearance, rod clearances and use plastigage to finish the installation.

Follow these installation tips to ensure that you can properly assemble your Cummins engine. This will serve as your guide along with the manufacturer’s specification. In that way, you Cummins engine can function properly and avoid rookie mistakes in the process of installing.

AmCham says China still a magnet for US firms

China’s renewed business momentum will spur US companies in the country and encourage them to tap new growth opportunities in emerging business sectors next year, said a senior US business representative on Monday.

“The Chinese economy has clearly recovered from the COVID-19 pandemic, and we see that reflected in the exports of manufactured products as well as domestic services. Global demand for electronics and medical supplies in particular has helped China’s exports return to normal,” said Ker Gibbs, president of the American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai.

He said China’s supply chains have proved to be extremely reliable during the COVID-19 pandemic. US companies expect China to provide more healthcare and social services during the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-25), as it is important to offer more services to the country’s aging population.

Gibbs expects China to stop providing annual GDP targets over the next five years. Dropping these targets would give policymakers more to plan for the long term, which is necessary as the demographic challenge grows, he said.

Meanwhile, US companies in China have no intention of pulling out or reshoring their operations. About 82 percent of the respondents in a recent survey, covering 124 US companies, said they have no plans to move their manufacturing facilities offshore over the next three years. The survey, conducted from Nov 11 to Nov 15, was released by the AmCham Shanghai last month. The chamber currently has 3,000 members from 1,500 US companies and 21 industry sector committees in China.

Perry Zheng, president for China operations at Otis Corp, a US manufacturer of elevators and escalators, said China is a critical part of the group’s global footprint and the largest new elevator equipment market in the world. As the country moves at full speed to open up to the outside, and with the new digital infrastructure initiative, the company is investing in new technologies and developing new services to stay competitive.

“We are committed to embracing the opportunities arising from China’s opening-up and collaboration, helping stimulate economic growth and providing benefits to residents and businesses across the country,” he said.

Wei Jianguo, vice-chairman of the China Center for International Economic Exchanges in Beijing, said China has become increasingly important over the last several years for multinational firms as its market has a large number of consumers to offer growth opportunities.

Global big names such as Apple, Nike, Adidas, L’Oreal and Lancome sold products worth over 100 million yuan ($15.2 million) in gross merchandise value on its platforms during the Singles Day shopping festival from Nov 1 to Nov 11, according to data released by Alibaba Group.

Bruno Schiavi, CEO and co-founder of Uncle Bud’s, a California-based skin care and personal care product maker, said his company started to run its flagship store on Tmall, Alibaba’s online shopping platform, last month to promote the sales of its CBD and Hemp products.

“Similar to most countries, consumer appetite for personal care products had an exponential growth this year in China. People have been pushed to do more at home and conduct beauty treatment themselves as many salons and professional services were closed,” he said, adding personal care products and services, and other wellness products have become fairly popular across the world this year.

“The US and China have benefited enormously from trade and investment, and it is important that we continue to make improvements to drive job creation and growth in both countries,” said Tom Linebarger, chairman and CEO of Cummins Inc, a US-based engine manufacturer. [from China Daily]